Wednesday, March 28, 2007

Safety Tips for Aerial Lifts

Aerial lifts are frequently used in the industry for maintenance painting. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics about 26 construction workers (8% are industrial painters) die each year from using aerial lifts. Approximately 70% involve boom-supported lifts, such as bucket trucks and cherry pickers; 25% of the other deaths involve scissor lifts.

Aerial Lift Deaths from Boom Lifts
Half of the falls from boom lifts involved being ejected from the bucket after being struck by vehicles, cranes, or crane loads, or by falling objects, or when a lift suddenly jerked. Two-thirds of the deaths from collapses/tip-overs of boom lifts occurred when the bucket cable or boom broke or the bucket fell; almost one-third were due to tip-overs. Over one-third of the electrocutions involved an overhead power line contacting the lift boom or bucket. In most of the caught in/between deaths, a worker was caught between the bucket edge and objects such as roof joists or beams while repositioning the bucket.
Aerial Lift Deaths from Scissor Lifts
Three-quarters of the tip-overs of scissor lifts resulted in fall deaths; in the remaining accidents, workers died from being struck by the falling scissor lift. About two-fifths of the tip-overs occurred when the scissor lift was extended over 15 feet, mostly while driving the lift. In one-fifth of the falls the worker was ejected from the scissor lift, mostly when an object struck the scissor lift. Other fall deaths occurred after removal of chains or guardrails, or while standing on or leaning over railings.
Operator Training Is Vital
Frequently operators lack the training to know they are creating safety hazards. An aerial lift is a potentially dangerous tool when the operator has not read the operator’s manual. Contractors should provide required manuals to operators and maintenance mechanics. If they can not read or understand the language of manuals, ANSI safety standards allow others to explain the manuals. OSHA requires a qualified person to train all users on:
  • Any electrical, fall, and falling-object hazards.
  • Procedures for dealing with hazards.
  • How to operate the lift correctly (including maximum intended load and load capacity). The user must show he/she knows how to use the lift.
  • Manufacturer requirements.
If the hazards change, the type of aerial lift changes, or a worker is not operating a lift properly, workers must be retrained. Ask manufacturers and suppliers for specific instructions for the operation of special use aerial lift trucks. OSHA, NIOSH, the National Safety Council and their local affiliates, vocational-technical schools or other training institutions provide resources to learn this skill. (Find contact information below.)
In addition to the lack of training, many lift accidents are caused by misapplication of the machine, obstacles, and lack or use or incorrect use of outriggers.
Inspect Before Operating Lifts
Identifying and controlling hazards is very important for job site safety. OSHA regulations state that employers cannot force employees to use unsafe equipment. Generally a pre-start inspection is required for all types of aerial lifts at each job site. Check operating and emergency controls, safety devices (such as, outriggers and guardrails), personal fall-protection gear, wheels and tires, and other machine components specified by the manufacturer. Look for possible leaks (air, hydraulic fluid, and fuel-system) and loose or missing parts.
Contractors should immediately remove from service aerial platforms that do not operate properly or are in need of repair. A qualified mechanic must make all repairs using equivalent replacement parts. Substitution of parts is not wise; they have been known to cause accidents. De-energize and lockout/tagout aerial lifts before any maintenance or repairs. Each aerial lift must be inspected as the manufacturer requires – every 3 months or after 150 hours of use, whichever comes first.
Check the job site where the lift will be used. Look for a level surface that won’t shift. Check the slope of the ground or floor. A machine may not work properly on steep slopes that exceed slope limits set by the manufacturer. Look for hazards, such as, holes, drop-offs, bumps, and debris, and overhead power lines and other obstructions. Set outriggers, brakes, and wheel chocks – even if you’re working on a level slope.
Tips for Operating Aerial Lifts
  • Always close lift platform chains or doors.
  • Stand on the floor of the bucket or lift platform. Do not climb on or lean over guardrails, or ride on bumpers.
  • Do not exceed manufacturer's load-capacity limits (including the weight of such things as bucket liners and tools).
  • If working near traffic, put work-zone warnings, like cones and signs.
  • Do not modify an aerial lift without written permission of the manufacturer.
  • Be sure proper personal fall-protection is provided and used.
  • On bucket trucks, OSHA requires a full-body harness and lanyard or a restraining device to prevent falls. To help keep workers inside guardrails, OSHA allows restraining devices with a 2 ft. lanyard.
To prevent electrocutions painters, blasters, and other workers must stay at least 10 feet away from overhead power lines. Insulated buckets protect from electrocution due to electric current passing through you and the boom to ground. The buckets do not protect if there's another path to ground – for example, if you touch another wire.
To prevent tip-overs
  • Check the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • Do not drive with the lift platform elevated (unless the manufacturer assures you that it is allowed).
  • Do not exceed vertical or horizontal reach limits or the specified load-capacity of the lift.
  • On an elevated scissor lift, avoid too much pushing or pulling.
More Safety Tips
  • If hazards on a job site change, the type of aerial lift changes, or a worker is not operating a lift properly, workers must be retrained.
  • Prevent unauthorized use by locking a machine, keeping its keys off the job site, or securing it in an inaccessible area when not working
  • Keep the operator’s manual on the machine at the job site not in the office.
  • Refer to the industry consensus standard, ANSI/SIA 92.2, for more information.
What You Should Know If You Rent
Many painting contractors rent aerial lifts instead of buying them. Therefore, you may not know which model you will be using, and may be unfamiliar with operator controls and other key features that differ on each model. Also, you may not know the maintenance history of the lift. The dealer or company renting out the lift should:
  • Properly inspect and service the lift before rental.
  • Provide operator and maintenance manuals.
  • Make sure the operator controls are easy to reach and properly marked.
- Based on Hazard Alert for Aerial Lift Safety and PowerPoint presentation by the Center to Protect Workers' Rights.
Other sources of information

Aerial/Worksite: New Standards - Digger Derricks


written by By Joshua T. Chard, Ph.D.Director, Product and Corporate Safety, Altec Industries, Inc.

A newly enacted standard for digger derricks will soon be impacting training requirements in the utility and telecommunications industries.

Most digger derrick products in use in the United States are designed, manufactured, tested, and intended to be operated with reference to applicable requirements of the utility and telecommunication industries and national consensus standards. Now, a newly enacted standard for digger derricks will present a new challenge for utility safety professionals.

The new national consensus standard, outlined in ANSI A10.31 2006 Safety Requirements, Definitions and Specifications for Digger Derricks, was approved on April 27, 2006. This revised version of the standard is the first change since 1995. It incorporates many changes, including new requirements for training of operators, for employers and owners, and for manufacturers of digger derricks. Standards from ANSI (the American National Standards Institute/Scaffold Industry Association), SAE Standards and Recommended Practices and other national consensus standards are incorporated by reference into various Federal Occupational Safety and Health (OSHA) Rules and Regulations. It should be noted by utility safety managers that the user of a digger derrick, such as the employer or employee, is responsible for compliance with the literal requirements of the OSH-Act. From OSHA's standpoint, if a regulation recognizes an ANSI or other national consensus standard, that requirement is binding.

OSHA Rules and Regulations that are relevant to most operations of digger derricks are specifically cited in Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1910.67 Vehicle-mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms; 29 CFR Subpart R, Special Industries; 1910.268 Telecommunications; 1910.269 Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution; 29 CFR 1926.453 Aerial Lifts; and 29 CFR Subpart V, Power Transmission and Distribution; 1926.952 Mechanical Equipment and 1926.955 Overhead Lines. Additionally, some sections of 1926.550 also apply.

Under the General Industry Tele-communication Standard, training is defined as:

1910.268(c) Training Employers shall provide training in the various precautions and safe practices described in this section and shall ensure that employees do not engage in the activities to which this section applies until such employees have received proper training in the various precautions and safe practices required by this section.

1910.269(a)(2)(i) Training Employees shall be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top and manhole rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary for their safety. The newly enacted standard outlines specific requirements for owners of digger derricks and employers of equipment operators:

8.12.2 General Training Only personnel who have received general instructions regarding the inspection, application and operation of digger derricks, including recognition and avoidance of hazards associated with their operation, shall operate a digger derrick. Such items covered shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following issues and requirements:
1. The purpose and use of manuals.
2. That operating manuals are an integral part of the digger derrick and must be properly stored on the vehicle when not in use.
3. A pre-start inspection.
4. Responsibilities associated with problems or malfunctions affecting the operation of the digger derrick.
5. Factors affecting stability.
6. The purpose of placards and decals.
7. Workplace inspection.
8. Applicable safety rules and regulations, such as Part 4, ANSI/IEEE C2, National Electrical Safety Code (applies to utility workers as defined in ANSI/IEEE C2). The above standard is an example; other industries using digger derricks have safety rules pertinent to that industry.
9. Authorization to operate.
10. Operator warnings and instructions.
11. Actual operation of the digger derrick. Under the direction of a qualified person, the trainee shall operate the digger derrick for a sufficient period of time to demonstrate proficiency in the actual operation of the digger derrick.
12. Proper use of personal fall protection equipment when the digger derrick is equipped with a platform(s).

8.12.3 Retraining The operator shall be retrained, when so directed by the user, based on the user's observation and evaluation of the operator.

8.12.4 Familiarization When an operator is directed to operate a digger derrick he is not familiar with, the operator, prior to operating, shall be instructed regarding the following items and issues: 1. The location of the manuals. 2. The purpose and function of all controls. 3. The safety devices and operating characteristics specific to the digger derrick. These requirements for training appear general and may leave safety professionals with training responsibilities wondering where to begin. Often, OSHA will reference a national consensus standard for additional information when regulations are not specific. Ultimately, it is the responsibility of the owner or employer to determine who is qualified to operate this equipment. In fact, OSHA can cite employers for failing to follow a consensus standard under what is referred to as the General Duty Clause of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. For example, under SEC. 5. Duties, "(a) Each employer (1) shall furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees." The standard has new training-related requirements for manufacturers as well. Section 6.10 Training and Training Materials, says "Manufacturers shall develop and offer training materials that aid dealers, owners, installers and users in the operation, inspection, testing and maintenance of the digger derrick." The manuals provided by digger derrick manufacturers provide important specific instructions and warnings to help meet the requirements discussed in the new standard. Many manufacturers also provide safety and operation videos and computer-based training aids. The material presented in these training programs is intended to assist persons in understanding the basic concepts of safe and efficient maintenance of their equipment.

These programs alone are not necessarily sufficient to certify or qualify any person as an operator of digger derrick equipment. Additional general skills and training in the basic use of mobile hydraulic equipment and a thorough practical understanding of the actual unit being used and the contents of the Operators and Maintenance Manual is required. The new standard means that companies with digger derricks will have new operator training requirements to meet. Proper operator training is not only important to meet the requirements of standards, though. It is the right thing to do from an ethical and a business perspective. A properly trained operator is less likely to be injured, injure others or damage equipment or property. ip

Editor's Note: Copies of the complete ANSI A10.31 2006 Safety Requirements, Definitions and Specifications for Digger Derricks standard are available from the American Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines, Illinois 60018-2187, (847) 699-2929 or at www.asse.org.

Tuesday, March 27, 2007

Iowa OSHA News

Tuesday, January 23rd, 2007
Posted by Amelia Figueroa, National Business Compliance Department

According to a report out of Des Moines, Iowa OSHA and the construction industry are partnering in a new, statewide training effort. The purpose of this new collaboration is to increase the safety awareness and reduce the number of fatalities in the construction industry.

Tragically, according to Iowa OSHA, the Iowa construction industry had more fatalities last year than any other state in the union. In the past ten years, forty-one Iowans have lost their lives to falls.

On a recent Wednesday, Iowa OSHA and members of the construction industry met at the Polk County Convention Complex in Des Moines to kick off the partnership. An important part of the program is the Fall Protection Summit. This program includes testimonials from those who did not use fall protection equipment and the impacts from that decision. It also discusses proper fall protection and how to implement procedures. OSHA case studies are also discussed, along with the fall investigation process. There is also an overview of fall protection requirements and a roundtable discussion.

“Fall protection training is a necessary component for the safety of those working in the construction industry. By investing in a collaborative effort to educate the industry on fall prevention, we can reduce the number of fatalities and serious injuries related to falls,” said Iowa Labor Commissioner David Neil.

The Fall Protection Summit is being offered free of charge to encourage individuals in the construction industry who face the everyday need to have protective procedures and systems to attend. Several summits are scheduled. If you are interested, please contact the Iowa Workforce Development office in your area.

Iowa Workforce Development envisions a future where Iowa has safe workplaces, and a productive and economically secure workforce. Working together with professionals in the construction industry is just one way that the Iowa Workforce Development helps prepare Iowans for an ever-changing future.

Monday, March 26, 2007

New Heights (part 2 of 2)

New Heights Part 2

Posted on Fire Chief Magazine, By Kent Pauli

Safety features

The truck-leveling assist system is another feature that many manufacturers are offering more regularly. When stabilizers are placed at the scene, the operator can:

  1. Manually level by sight, using the vehicle's inclinometers.
  2. Push a button.

When the second choice activates the leveling assist system, the truck will level within the grade it is on. The system factors in the various grades fore and aft, as well as side-to-side, so the operator doesn't need to go to all sides of the truck and check for level. This can be a major time-saver when seconds count, while providing greater accuracy.

Safety is a factor in ergonomics decisions like pull-out, drop-down steps and the NFPA's slip-resistance requirements for walking surfaces. Open, clear and safe walkway surfaces for egress up and down the aerial device is another important safety feature that customers request. This often involves the elimination of impediments to keep walkways completely free for firefighters. When firefighters are moving tools and/or people up and down an aerial, it's important to remove any electrical cables, electrical tracks and cylinders that could reduce the walkway width or cause trip hazards.

Scene lighting also affects safety. There's been an increased use of indicators and strobes, and corresponding higher wattage requirements, including 110- and 220-volt lighting to the tip. The indicator strobe — a flashing light that sits under the basket or at the tip of the ladder — lets the turntable operator or someone on a roof know exactly where the aerial is located at all times and under any conditions. The use of lighting at the tip of the aerial has become more popular and has significantly improved firefighters' ability to focus light on the scene to improve safety and visibility during adverse conditions.

The ability to illuminate the rungs for improved visibility during low-light conditions is also requested in many specifications. This can be accomplished by placing lights on the sides of each section, or by using luminescent material that will illuminate during low-light conditions.

Luminescent materials reduce electrical connections and amp draw for the vehicle. They're either applied as an additional tape between rung covers or incorporated directly into the rung cover. Some of these materials will illuminate in low-light conditions for up to 12 hours without needing a light source to energize the material.

The use of 12-volt high-intensity discharge lighting in place of 110- and 220-volt lighting also is becoming more popular with many departments. The benefit of using HID technology for scene lighting is that the light output is typically more than three times greater, without the wattage requirement. With this type of technology, users are no longer required to run a generator to provide scene lighting from the aerial.

Equipment storage

As firefighters continue to expand the use of the aerial apparatus, requests to mount different types of loose equipment at the tip of the aerial or in the basket will continue to increase. To allow for the vast amount of equipment at the tip, aerial loose equipment allowances have continued to increase.

The ability to mount equipment on the aerial closer to where it will be used is a significant benefit to firefighters. By mounting the equipment where it's needed, firefighters no longer have to carry it from the apparatus compartments to the tip of the aerial, making their climbs up and down the aerial device safer. Their fireground performance also becomes more efficient.

Aerial baskets are being designed to provide increased space for firefighters to maneuver during operations. The baskets have been designed to incorporate full heat shields to improve protection and moveable controls so that the basket operator can have the best visibility possible. Basket doors have been improved to allow for easy entry and exit without requiring gates to be raised and lowered. In addition, stokes basket mounts, rapelling arms, winch mounts, roof ladder mounts for below-grade accessibility and lifting eye mounts, are all very popular.

Both aerial ladders and platforms are being designed to incorporate ground ladder mounts in the fly and base sections. Using a roof ladder from this location is easier than pulling it from the ladder storage on the ground and carrying it up the aerial. Stokes basket storage brackets or boxes on the base of the aerial also are very popular with many departments. Again, this allows for the stokes basket to be stored closer to where it will be used. It also frees up up valuable compartment space.

Finally, ax and pike pole mounts in the fly section give fire departments the ability to store more equipment where it is needed, as well as increase the amount of equipment the vehicle can carry to the scene, because they don't take away from the other storage requirements that are planned for the apparatus compartmentation.

As fireground operations continue to change, the requirements for manufacturers to design new options will continue to increase. Safety for firefighters, new NFPA standards and new technologies continue to require aerial manufacturers to upgrade their aerial systems and options. Design of these components and systems are relied on during the dangers of each response.

Testing these new designs, components and systems for reliability is absolutely critical. For the sake of the safety of firefighters and first responders, manufacturers should only offer any technology when it has passed the grade and gone through extensive durability and performance tests.

Kent Pauli is the aerial product manager at Pierce Manufacturing, Appleton, Wis., where he has worked in various capacities for nine years. He is active with multiple NFPA committees, in addition to serving on the Pierce team that worked toward receiving the Standard of the Canadian ULC-S-515-04, which sets the standard for requirements and performance for all aspects of fire apparatus, including the aerial. He has an engineering degree from the University of Wisconsin.

Friday, March 23, 2007

New Heights (part 1 of 2)

New Heights Part 1

Posted on Fire Chief Magazine, By Kent Pauli

Budget constraints and staffing shortages strongly affect trends among all vehicles, including aerial ladders and platforms. Historically, aerials have been used exclusively for carrying forcible entry tools and ground ladders, and they didn't feature prepiped waterways. Today, however, the trend is to put more capability on a single vehicle.

The change has been moving toward having a wide array of standard equipment and an even greater number of optional choices. These choices are driven by firefighters, manufacturers and the National Fire Protection Association, whose constant feedback and ideas always challenge apparatus manufacturers. The latest trends focus primarily on ways to improve firefighting performance, save time and enhance firefighter safety.

Firefighting performance

As with today's pumpers, the firefighting capabilities and performance of aerial ladders and platforms continue to increase. Departments that are specifying new aerial apparatus are requesting increased tip loads and higher capacity, and more powerful water pumps and waterways. Today's most powerful aerials can deliver more than 3,000gpm while maintaining a 500-pound rated load capacity, even in winds up to 50mph. This is a large increase in performance from what was available a few years ago.

Firefighters demand that apparatus are increasingly multipurpose; they want versatile trucks that can respond to a wide range of calls. To meet this need, manufacturers are being asked to offer a wide range of foam capabilities on their aerials. Departments want vehicles with the versatility of foam systems and CAFS, which provide significant improvements in knockdown exposure and safety.

Preconnects and preplumbed hose boxes at the tip are an increasingly popular option for aerials. In this way, the aerial can be used like a standpipe, with the hose connected from the ladder tip, to deliver water or foam exactly whereneeded. Offering preconnected hose boxes at the tip of the aerial gives fire departments added flexibility; firefighters don't need to carry the hose to the top of the device because the equipment is up where it's needed.

With the requirements for increased flow, monitor manufacturers have continued to develop new monitors that can handle the higher flow rates, as well as reduce friction loss for improved performance. As monitors have been redesigned, multiplexing has been integrated into the monitor control packages so that features such as auto-stowing and auto-oscillation can be incorporated.

The auto-stow feature has become very popular with many departments, as this ensures that the monitor is stored to a pre-programmed position for reduced travel length or to protect the monitor, cab and body from damage during aerial cradling. Auto-oscillation allows firefighters to engage the monitor in a programmed sweep pattern. By using this function, firefighters no longer have to continually move the monitor, allowing them to focus their attention on the changing environment of the fireground.

Wireless radio frequency capability for monitor controls is being used more, as well. By incorporating RF technology into monitor controls, the monitor can be moved to adjust the master stream without having a firefighter located at the monitor, which keeps him or her away from potential ground dangers.

As for aerial remote controls, they can be hard-wired to the turntable controls but located at the tip of an aerial ladder or at the pump panel, or they can be wireless RF-controlled. Aerial tip controls, otherwise known as “creeper” controls, allow firefighters at the tip of an aerial ladder to move the aerial in low-visibility conditions, reducing the potential of damaging the tip of the aerial. With wireless remote controls, the apparatus can be set up and positioned, and then operated from a distance to protect firefighters from dangerous conditions.

More information

Knowledge is power, and multiplexed systems offer significantly more information to firefighters and mechanics. The benefits of multiplexed electronics include not only a more reliable system that's easier to troubleshoot, but also increased features and more accurate information, delivered when and where it's needed. When operating complex apparatus such as aerials, the more information and monitoring systems the user has available, the safer the operators will be.

Multiplexed electronics provide more flexibility and enhance safety. For example, many multiplexed systems offer a collision-avoidance system. These systems are designed to continually monitor the position of the aerial. Once the system is programmed, the aerial operational windows are set to allow the operator to position the aerial with confidence, without the worry of damaging the body or cab. The system is invaluable when working off the side of a vehicle for a less experienced or harried operator, who could hit the side sheet of the body and potentially cause tens of thousands of dollars in damage. And with the growing popularity of mid-mount aerials, collision-avoidance systems become even more critical because there are fewer zones of below-grade operation in which an aerial can work without causing damage to the cab or body.

Multiplexing provides real-time information on the reach, angle of operation, water flow rate and total water flow capabilities, aerial tip temperature, rung alignment, breathing-air capacity, and cradle alignment. It also offers multiple caution and warning alarms. Multiplexing even can display an active load chart of exact load capabilities at every angle of operation while taking into account whether the aerial waterway is charged and at what angle the vehicle was set up. All of this information is displayed on easy-to-read screens in the platform and at the turntable.

With a multiplexed system, a lot of trouble-shooting can be performed on the display screen or on a laptop or handheld computer. The multiplex systems also allow long-distance troubleshooting and factory support, if necessary, by modem connections. As a result of the ease of troubleshooting and diagnosing problems, the time a vehicle must remain out of service also has been reduced.


Kent Pauli is the aerial product manager at Pierce Manufacturing, Appleton, Wis., where he has worked in various capacities for nine years. He is active with multiple NFPA committees, in addition to serving on the Pierce team that worked toward receiving the Standard of the Canadian ULC-S-515-04, which sets the standard for requirements and performance for all aspects of fire apparatus, including the aerial. He has an engineering degree from the University of Wisconsin.

Monday, March 12, 2007

Rugged Inclinometers

H4 Sensors are small extremely rugged inclinometers (or tilt indicators) made for off-road forklifts, material handlers, and equipment with aerial type extended booms. Applications include boom angle indication, platform leveling for construction and lift equipment - built for rugged harsh environments to provide accurate angle monitoring.



read more | digg story

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders

California's Division of Occupational Safety and Health (CA/OSHA)

Division 1. Department of Industrial Relations
Chapter 4. Division of Industrial Safety

Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders
Group 13. Cranes and Other Hoisting Equipment
Article 93. Boom--Type Mobile Cranes


§4924. Load Safety Devices.

(a) All cranes having a maximum rated capacity exceeding one ton shall be equipped with safety devices as provided herein.

Exceptions: 1. Boom-type excavators used in excavation work and all equipment used exclusively for pile driving or log handling.

Articulating boom cranes are exempt from the provisions of subsections (c) and (d).

(b) All mobile cranes including truck-mounted tower cranes, except as provided above, having either a maximum rated boom length exceeding 200 feet or a maximum rated capacity exceeding 50 tons shall be equipped with a load indicating device or a load moment device, or a device that prevents an overload condition. Only approved devices as defined in the General Industry Safety Orders, Section 3206 shall be used.

(c) Each variable radius boom-type crane shall be equipped with a boom angle or a boom radius indicator in clear view from the operator's position.

(d) Cranes having a boom exceeding 60 feet in length or a maximum rated capacity exceeding 15 tons shall be provided with an approved boom angle or radius indicator which clearly shows the boom angle in degrees to the operator at all times; the indicator shall give a clear visual warning signal before high or low unsafe boom angles are reached; the indicator shall be adjustable, and under the control of the operator at all times; and a visual inspection of indicator shall be made each day by the operator to see that it is properly functioning.

(e) Spirit levels, or equivalent, shall be provided to indicate the level of the crane fore and aft and across the width.

NOTE

Authority cited: Section 142.3, Labor Code. Reference: Section 142.3, Labor Code.

HISTORY

1. Amendment of subsection (a) filed 5-16-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 20).

2. Amendment of subsection (c) filed 11-28-75; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 75, No. 48).

3. Amendment filed 2-6-76; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 76, No. 6).

4. Amendment of subsection (a) filed 7-6-79; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 79, No. 27).

5. Amendment filed 8-29-86; effective thirtieth day thereafter (Register 86, No. 39).

6. Amendment of Exception to subsection (a) filed 4-16-93; operative 5-17-93 (Register 93, No. 16).

7. Editorial correction of History 2 (Register 97, No. 23).

8. Amendment of subsection (b) filed 1-3-2002; operative 2-2-2002 (Register 2002, No. 1).

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